• August 9, 2022

What Do You Mean By Evolutionary Convergence?

What do you mean by evolutionary convergence? Convergent evolution is when different organisms independently evolve similar traits. Biologists call this process — when two organisms share characteristics that they didn't jointly inherit from a common ancestor — convergent evolution.

Is Homoplasy convergent evolution?

Homoplasies provide the signature of convergent evolution, and reveal the powerful role of selection in creating adaptive solutions to common social and ecological problems.

What is a Homoplastic structure?

Features of animals that have similar structure are classified as homologous if they have a common evolutionary origin, even if they have different functions in different animals. These have converged to have the same or comparable function despite differing origins and are known as analogous or homoplastic structures.

What are examples of convergent evolution?

An example of convergent evolution is the similar nature of the flight/wings of insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats. All four serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently. Some aspects of the lens of eyes also evolved independently in various animals.

What is the best definition for convergent evolution?

Convergent evolution is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to the kind of evolution wherein, for instance, a pair of phylogenetically independent organisms evolve anatomically different structure, trait, or morphological feature that has the same function.

Related guide for What Do You Mean By Evolutionary Convergence?

What is convergent evolution Class 12?

Convergent evolution is the process when different structures of different origin evolve to have the same function and have similarity.

What does Homoplastic mean?

Medical Definition of homoplastic

1 : of or relating to homoplasy. 2 : of, relating to, or derived from another individual of the same species homoplastic grafts. Other Words from homoplastic. homoplastically \ -​ti-​k(ə-​)lē \ adverb. homoplasty \ ˈhō-​mə-​ˌplas-​tē , ˈhäm-​ə-​ \ noun, plural homoplasties.

What is a Homoplastic character?

Homoplastic (analogous) characters may also be similar in appearance, but have actually evolved from different ancestors. Octopus eyes and human eyes are homoplastic; they develop very differently and have evolved independently in two remotely related groups of animals.

What causes convergent evolution?

Convergent evolution at the genetic level can result from one of three processes: first, evolution by mutations that occurred independently in different populations or species; second, evolution of an allele that was polymorphic in a shared ancestral population; and third, evolution of an allele that was introduced

What is a Synapomorphy example?

For example, the presence of mammary glands is a synapomorphy for mammals in relation to tetrapods but is a symplesiomorphy for mammals in relation to one another—rodents and primates, for example.

What is a Plesiomorphic trait?

plesiomorphy (ancestral trait) An evolutionary trait that is homologous within a particular group of organisms but is not unique to members of that group (compare apomorphy) and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic or defining character for the group.

What are Homoplasies traits?

A homoplasy is a character shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor. A good example is the evolution of the eye which has originated independently in many different species.

Are birds and butterflies convergent or divergent?

In the case of wings of birds and butterflies the physiological appearance or function is the same – meant for flying but the anatomical structure when observed is completely different. Such structures are known as analogous structures and they indicate lack of common ancestry. This is Convergent evolution.

Which of the following best explains convergent evolution?

Convergent evolution occurs when two species living in different areas evolve similarities through natural selection acting on those characteristics. structures of animals that have difference appearances and functions but seem to have evolved from the same body part in a common ancestor.

Can you give two examples of convergent evolution?

Examples of convergent evolution include the relationship between bat and insect wings, shark and dolphin bodies, and vertebrate and cephalopod eyes. Analogous structures arise from convergent evolution, but homologous structures do not.

What is convergent evolution and divergent evolution?

Divergent evolution occurs when two separate species evolve differently from a common ancestor. Convergent evolution occurs when species have different ancestral origins but have developed similar features. A good example of convergent evolution is the similarities between the hummingbird and the hummingbird moth.

Are Penguins examples of convergent evolution?

Another example of a trait derived through convergent evolution is flippers. Animals such as seals and penguins both have flippers to help them navigate through their aquatic environments. While analogous traits may be more easily seen in animals, all organisms can exhibit convergent evolution.

What is difference between convergent and divergent?

The main difference between convergent evolution and divergent evolution is that convergent evolution is the development of similar features in two species with different ancestral origins whereas divergent evolution is a process where two different species share a common ancestor.

What is convergent evolution and divergent evolution explain with examples?

Divergent evolution vs. convergent evolution

Divergent evolution Convergent evolution
Caused by environmental changes, migration Caused by environmental changes
Another name for divergent evolution is divergent selection Also called convergence
Example: Darwin's finches Example: wings of insects, birds, and bats

What is convergent and divergent evolution Class 10?

1. Due to adaptation when a species evolves similarities in their function and characteristics is considered as convergent evolution. In divergent evolution, an ancestral species diverges into many different species and finally produces a new species.

What is meant by Synapomorphy?

: a character or trait that is shared by two or more taxonomic groups and is derived through evolution from a common ancestral form.

What does derived trait mean?

Derived traits are those that just appeared (by mutation) in the most recent ancestor -- the one that gave rise to a newly formed branch. Of course, what's primitive or derived is relative to what branch an organism is on.

What is the difference between homology and Homoplasy?

Homology is similarity that reflects common descent and ancestry. Homoplasy is similarity (some might say superficial similarity) arrived at via independent evolution.

Did hippos evolve whales?

Hippos are the closest living relatives of whales, but they are not the ancestors of whales. Both hippos and whales evolved from four-legged, even-toed, hoofed (ungulate) ancestors that lived on land about 50 million years ago. Modern-day ungulates include hippopotamus, giraffe, deer, pig and cow.

Why do biologists care about phylogenies?

Why do biologist care about phylogenies? Phylogenies enable biologists to compare organisms and make predictions and inferences based on similarities and differences in traits. A phylogenetic tree may portray the evolutionary history of all life forms.

Why do Homoplasies make it harder to infer phylogenies?

Terms in this set (81) Why does homoplasy make it hard to accurately estimate the evolutionary history of a species? Homoplasy may result from reversals of trait characteristics. It may also go down to the genetic level, such as a reversal in nucleotide and result in an incorrect homology between two species.

What is convergent evolution Why is it important?

Convergent evolution—in which distinct lineages independently evolve similar traits—has fascinated evolutionary biologists for centuries [1], in large part because convergent evolution is often thought to represent a visible manifestation of the power of natural selection.

How does convergent evolution work?

Convergent evolution: Convergent evolution occurs when two organisms that lack a recent common ancestor end up more and more alike as they adapt to a similar ecological niche. The organisms have convergent phenotypes, and their similar structural forms are called analogous structures (such as bird wings and bat wings).

Why is convergent evolution problematic?

The major difficulty involved with convergent evolution is the formation of analogous structures. These structures may appear similar and perform similar functions, making it seem that two species are closely related.

How do you identify synapomorphies?

A synapomorphy is a shared, derived character, common between an ancestor and its descendants. A character, or trait, is anything observable about the organism. It may be the size of the organism, the type of skin covering the organism has, or even things like eye color.

What are the synapomorphies of animals?

  • no cell walls (though they do have an extensive extracellular matrix)
  • muscle and nerve tissue.
  • no alternation of generations (common in plants)
  • adults of most species are diploid; only gametes are haploid.

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